The best all-around ship is the I7 Armadillo, as it has the highest stats of all the ships in the game.
The I25 Wolf and F17 Albatross also have fairly well-balanced stats.
The F17 Albatross and F25 Cormoran have fully maximized Shield and Hull, but lesser Weapons and Handling as a result. Use them for convoy missions if you can.
The II5 Hyena MK2, F37 Sparrow, II5 Hyena and F28 Hawk are superb ships for beginners, as they have the best handling you can find in the game. The Hawk will automatically be available when you start, but you'll need to buy the others.
No ship has weapons fully maxed out, but the Hyena and Hyena MK2 have the highest rankings, so use them if you want the most firepower.